Article IV – Bill of Rights | 1973 Philippine Constitution

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Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.

Section 3. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and whatever purpose shall not be violated, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined by the judge, or such other responsible officer as maybe authorized by law, after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Section 4.

  1. The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety and order require otherwise.

  2. Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding Section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.


Section 5. The liberty of abode and of travel shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court, or when necessary in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health.

Section 6. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, shall be afforded the citizen subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.

Section 7. The right to form associations or societies for purposes not contrary to the law shall not be abridged.

Section 8. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights.

Section 9. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, or the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances.

Section 10. No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be enacted.

Section 11. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.

Section 12. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.

Section 13. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax.

Section 14. No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.

Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion, insurrection, or rebellion, or imminent danger thereof, when the public safety requires it.

Section 16. All persons, shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases in all judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies.

Section 17. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law.

Section 18. All persons, except those charged with capital offenses when evidence of guilt is strong shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties. Excessive bail shall not be required.

Section 19. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused provided that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustified.

Section 20. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to remain silent and to counsel, and to be informed of such right. No force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiates the free will shall be used against him. Any confession obtained in violation of this section shall be inadmissible in evidence.

Section 21. Excessive fines shall not be imposed nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted.

Section 22. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act.

Section 23. Free access to the courts shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty.