A. Common Provisions
Section 1. The Constitutional Commissions shall be the Civil Service Commission, the Commission on Elections, and the Commission on Audit.
Section 2. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Chairman and each Commissioner of a Constitutional Commission shall receive an annual salary of sixty thousand pesos, and fifty thousand pesos, respectively, which shall not be decreased during their continuance in office.
Section 3. No Member of the Constitutional Commission shall, during his tenure in office, engage in the practice of any profession or in the management of any business, or be financially interested directly or indirectly in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by, the government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations.
Section 4. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with the Civil Service Law.
B. The Civil Service Commission
The Civil Service embraces every branch, agency, subdivision, and instrumentality of the government, including every government- owned or controlled corporation. It shall be administered by an independent Civil Service Commission composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and at the time of their appointment, are at least thirty-five years of age and holders of a college degree, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the election immediately preceding their appointment. The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the Prime Minister for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of the Commissioners first appointed, one shall hold office for seven years, another for five years, and the third for three years. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.
The Commissioner shall, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law, established a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, and integrity in the Civil Service.
Section 2. Appointments in the Civil Service, except as to those which are policy-determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical in nature, shall be made only according to merit and fitness, to be determined as far as practicable by competitive examination.
Section 3. No officer or employee in the Civil Service shall be suspended or dismissed except for cause provided by law.
No elective official shall be eligible for appointment to any office or position during his term of office.
No candidate who lost an election shall be eligible for appointment or reappointment to any office in the government, or in any government-owned or controlled corporation, within one year following such election.
Section 5. No officer or employee in the Civil Service, including members of the armed forces, shall engage directly or indirectly in any partisan political activity or take part in any election, except to vote.
Section 6. The National Assembly shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials and employees, including those in government-owned and controlled corporations, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for, the positions concerned.
C. The Commission on Elections
There shall be an independent Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and eight Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age and holders of college degree. However, a majority thereof, including the Chairman, shall be Members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years.
The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the Prime Minister for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of the Commissioners first appointed, three shall hold office for seven years, three for five years, and the last three for three years. Appointments to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.
Section 2. The Commission on Elections shall have the following powers and functions:
Enforce and administer all laws relative to the conduct of elections.
Be the sole judge of all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all Members of the National Assembly and elective provincial and city officials. provincial and city officials.
Decide, save those involving the right to vote, administrative questions affecting elections, including the determination of the number and location of polling places, the appointment of election officials and inspectors, and the registration of voters.
Deputize, with the consent or at the instance of the Prime Minister, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the purpose of ensuring free, orderly, and honest elections.
Register and accredit political parties subject to the provisions of Section Eight hereof.
Recommend to the National Assembly effective measures to minimize election expenses and prohibit all forms of election frauds and malpractices, political opportunism, guest or nuisance candidacy, or other similar acts.
Submit to the President, Prime Minister, and the National Assembly a report on the conduct and manner of each election.
Perform such other functions as may be provided by law.
Section 3. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in three divisions. All election cases may be heard and decided by divisions, except contests involving Members of the National Assembly, which shall be heard and decided en banc. Unless otherwise provided by law, all election cases shall be decided within ninety days from the date of their submission for decision.
Section 4. The Commission may recommend to the Prime Minister the removal of, or any other disciplinary action against, any officer or employee it has deputized, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its decision, order, or directive.
Section 5. The enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities, media of communication, all grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation, may be supervised or regulated by the Commission during the election period for the purpose of ensuring free, orderly, and honest elections.
Section 6. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall commence ninety days before the day of election and shall end thirty days thereafter.
Section 7. No pardon, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation of the law or rules and regulations concerning elections be granted without the recommendation of the Commission.
Section 8. A political party shall be entitled to accreditation by the Commission if, in the immediately preceding election, such party has obtained at least the third highest number of votes cast in the constituency to which it seeks accreditation. No religious sect shall be registered as a political party and no political party which seeks to achieve its goals through violence or subversion shall be entitled to accreditation.
Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and discrimination.
No party or candidate shall have membership in the registration board, board of election inspectors, board of canvassers, or other similar bodies.
Section 10. No elective public officer may change his political party affiliation during his term of office and no candidate for any elective public office may change his political party affiliation within six months immediately preceding or following an election.
Section 11. Any decision, order, or ruling of the Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from his receipt of a copy thereof.
D. Commission on Audit
- There shall be an independent Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least forty years of age and certified public accountants or members of the Philippine Bar for at least ten years.
- The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the Prime Minister for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of the Commissioners first appointed, one shall hold office for seven years, another for five years, and the third for three years. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.
Section 2. The Commission on Audit shall have the following powers and functions:
- Examine, audit, and settle, in accordance with law and regulations, all accounts pertaining to the revenues and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and property, owned or held in trust by, or pertaining to, the Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned and controlled corporations; keep the general accounts of the government and, for such period as may be provided by law, preserve the vouchers pertaining thereto; and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations including those for the prevention of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, or extravagant expenditures or use of funds and property.
- Decide any case brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for resolution. Unless otherwise provided by law, any decision, order, or ruling of the Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within days from his receipt of a copy thereof.
- Submit to the President, the Prime Minister, and the National Assembly, within the time fixed by law, an annual financial report of the government, its subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including government-owned and controlled corporations, and recommend measures necessary to improve their efficiency and effectiveness. It shall submit such other reports as may be required by law.
- Perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law.